Spiral model in Software Engineering #spiral #software #development, #spiral #model


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In the 1980s; Boehm introduced a process model known as the spiral model. The spiral model comprises activities organized in a spiral, and has many cycles. This model combines the features of the prototyping model and waterfall model and is advantageous for large, complex, and expensive projects. It determines requirements problems in developing the prototypes. In addition, it guides and measures the need of risk management in each cycle of the spiral model. IEEE defines the spiral model as ‘a model of the software development process in which the constituent activities, typical requirements analysis, preliminary and detailed· design, coding, integration, and testing, are performed iteratively until the software is complete.

The objective of the spiral model is to emphasize management to evaluate and resolve risks in the software project. Different areas of risks in the software project are project overruns, changed requirements, loss of key project personnel, delay of necessary hardware, competition with other software developers and technological breakthroughs, which make the project obsolete.

TableAdvantages and Disadvantages of Prototyping Model

  • Provides a working model to the user early in the process, enabling early assessment and increasing user’s confidence.
  • The developer gains experience and insight by developing a prototype there by resulting in better implementation of requirements.
  • The prototyping model serves to clarify requirements, which are not clear, hence reducing ambiguity and improving communication between the developers and users.
  • There is a great involvement of users in software development. Hence, the requirements of the users are met to the greatest extent.
  • Helps in reducing risks associated with the software.
  • If the user is not satisfied by the developed prototype, then a new prototype is developed. This process goes on until a perfect prototype is developed. Thus, this model is time consuming and expensive.
  • The developer loses focus of the real purpose of prototype and hence, may compromise with the quality of the software. For example, developers may use some inefficient algorithms or inappropriate programming languages while developing the prototype.
  • Prototyping can lead to false expectations. For example, a situation may be created where the user believes that the development of the system is finished when it is not.
  • The primary goal of prototyping is speedy development, thus, the system design can suffer as it is developed in series without considering integration of all other components.

The steps involved in the spiral model are listed below.

1. Each cycle of the first quadrant commences with identifying the goals for that cycle. In addition, it determines other alternatives, which are possible in accomplishing those goals.

2. The next step in the cycle evaluates alternatives based on objectives and constraints. This process identifies the areas of uncertainty and focuses on significant sources of the project risks. Risk signifies that there is a possibility that the objectives of the project cannot be accomplished. If so, the formulation of a cost-effective strategy for resolving risks is followed.

3. The development of the software depends on remaining risks. The third quadrant develops the final software while considering the risks that can occur. Risk management considers the time and effort to be devoted to each project activity such as planning, configuration management, quality assurance, verification, and testing.

4. The last quadrant plans the next step and includes planning for the next prototype and thus, comprises the requirements plan, development plan, integration plan, and test plan.

One of the key features of the spiral model is that each cycle is completed by a review conducted by the individuals or users. This includes the review of all the intermediate products, which are developed during the cycles. In addition, it includes the plan for the next cycle and the resources required for that cycle.

The spiral model is similar to the waterfall model as software requirements are understood at the early stages in both the models. However, the major risks involved with developing the final software are resolved in the spiral model. When these issues are resolved, a detailed design of the software is developed.Notethat processes in the waterfall model are followedby different cycles in the spiral model as shown in Figure.

The spiral model is also similar to the prototyping model as one of the key features of prototyping is to develop a prototype until the user requirements are accomplished. The second step of the spiral model functions similarly. The prototype is developed to clearly understand and achieve the user requirements. If the user is not satisfied with the prototype, a new prototype known as operational prototype is developed.

Various advantages and disadvantages associated with the spiral model are listed in Table.

TableAdvantages and Disadvantages of Spiral Model

  • Avoids the problems resulting in risk-driven approach in the software
  • Specifies a mechanism for software quality assurance activities
  • Is utilized by complex and dynamic projects
  • Re-evaluation after each step allows changes in user perspectives, technology advances, or financial perspectives.
  • Estimation of budget and schedule gets realistic as the work progresses.
  • Assessment of project risks and itsresolution is not an easy task.
  • Difficult to estimate budget and schedule in the beginning as some of the analysis is not done until the design of the software is developed.

Data Governance Financial Services Conference – September 8-9, 2016, Jersey City, NJ #data #governance #model


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The 2016 Data Governance Financial Services Conference is the ONLY Conference Dedicated ENTIRELY to Data Governance and Financial Services

This Conference is Over

The Data Governance Financial Services Conference
will be held
October 5-6, 2017, Jersey City
Jersey City, NJ

  • Conference sessions
  • Keynotes
  • Tutorials
  • Sessions by data governance experts
  • Case studies from the financial sector
  • Sessions designed for the experienced data governance and data quality professional as well as for beginners
  • Takeaways that can be Used Immediately at Your Organization

Conference Topics:

  • How to Operationalize Data Governance in the Financial Sector
  • Data Stewardship
  • Financial Data Governance Frameworks
  • Best Practices for DFAST and CCAR Compliance
  • Managing Reference Data in Financial Services
  • Data Governance for mid-sized Financial Firms
  • Data Governance and Data Quality Metrics
  • How to Benchmark your Program to Align with the EDM Council’s DCAM model
  • Data governance in the Big Data Lake
  • Best Practices in Implementing Data Governance Policies and Standards
  • Tips to Improve your Data Governance Process
  • Blockchain Technologies and Governance

Data Governance Financial Services Featured Speakers:

Jennifer Ippoliti
J.P. Morgan Chase’s
Chief Data Office

This program has been approved by the Institute for Certification of Computing Professionals (ICCP) for awarding contact hours to be credited to Recertification records of Certified Computing Professional (CCP), Associate Computing Professional (ACP), Certified Business Intelligence Professional (CBIP), Certified Data Management Professional (CDMP) and Certified Insurance Data Manager (CIDM). For more information, call 847-299-4227.


Detroit Electric Model D: Abandoned for gas guzzlers, the amazing 103 year old electric car


Abandoned for gas guzzlers, the astonishing 103 year old electric car that was ahead of its time

  • The 1910 Detroit Electric Model D has a range of 100 miles and can reach 25mph
  • Car comes complete with a 6 foot tall charger

Published: 17:20 BST, 15 January 2013 | Updated: 08:05 BST, 16 January 2013

A rusty 103-year-old electric car rendered obsolete by the invention of the automobile is tipped to sell for £50,000 as it has turned out to be way ahead of its time.

While electric cars are being hailed by many as the future of transportation today, a rudimentary version was being manufactured in the early 20th century.

Looking like a cross between something from the Wacky Races and a golf buggy, the car had a top speed of just 25mph.

Dodo, a 103-year-old Detroit Electric Model D that was thought for a century to be an evolutionary dead end has emerged for auction – and has now turned out to be way ahead of its time

The six foot tall recharging station for the Detroit Electric Model D, which gave the car a range of 100 miles on a full charge

It had a range of 100 miles but had to be plugged into a giant 6ft tall charger before every journey.

Manufacturing came to an end in the 1920s when the mass production of the petrol car left it trailing in its wake.

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The 1910 Detroit Electric Model D that has now emerged for sale would have cost £1,500 at the time, the equivalent of £85,000 today.

Modern-day electric cars such as the Nissan LEAF are now priced at around £25,000.

In the early 20th century, the electric car was preferred over the early petrol versions as it was simple to operate and was a lot quieter.

Henry Ford, founder of The Ford Motor Company, bought two Detroit electric cars for his wife Clara for this reason.

Rupert Banner, a car specialist at auctioneers Bonhams, said: ‘Electric cars are all the rage now but Detroit Electric was doing very well with them 100 years ago.

‘The company became the most successful manufacturer of electric cars and this is a very early version of what they produced.

‘They were very popular into the 1920s.

‘This one still has the same interior it had back then and has been well preserved.

‘It’s like stepping back in time.

‘It has been in a museum for a number of years now.

Experts at Bonhams say the car is relatively easy to restore, and could soon be in full working order

‘It’s a very interesting car and it still has its original transforming unit with it, which is extremely rare.

‘It looks like something you could power an entire grid with these days, it is so big.

‘Once the petrol car came in the days of the Detroit Electric Model were always going to be numbered.

‘People could go longer distances and there were now no limitations, which especially in a country as big as America, made all of the difference.

‘Detroit were unquestionably the most successful at the electric cars though, that is without question.’

The 103-year-old Detroit Electric Model D that was thought for a century to be an evolutionary dead end but has now turned out to be way ahead of its time

The car comes with its original charger and experts believe it will provide a straight forward restoration project for the new owner.

Detroit Electric was an American automobile brand produced by the Anderson Electric Car Company in Detroit, Michigan.

It went defunct in 1939.

In recent years Detroit Electric has been in negotiations with companies in China and Malaysia about reviving the brand.

The car will be sold at auction in Scottsdale, Arizona, US, on January 17.

The 1910 Detroit Electric Model D was a popular vehicle for thousands of motorists in the early years of the 20th century before the widespread production of petrol cars rendered it obsolete.

The car, which has been in a museum for the past decade, is expected to fetch £50,000 when auctioned by Bonhams this week


Innovation: 100 Years of the Moving Assembly Line #ford, #henry #ford, #manufacturing, #innovation, #assembly #line,


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100 Years of the Moving Assembly Line

New Goals for Advanced, Flexible Manufacturing

As today marks the 100th anniversary of the moving assembly line invented by Ford Motor Company under the leadership of Henry Ford, the company is building on its legacy of innovation by expanding advanced manufacturing capabilities and introducing groundbreaking technologies that could revolutionize mass production for decades to come.

Ford is rapidly expanding its advanced manufacturing capabilities and boosting global production to meet surging consumer demand. By 2017, Ford will increase its global flexible manufacturing to produce on average four different models at each plant around the world to allow for greater adaptability based on varying customer demand. Ford also projects 90 percent of its plants around the world will be running on a three-shift or crew model by 2017, which will help increase production time more than 30 percent.

“One hundred years ago, my great-grandfather had a vision to build safe and efficient transportation for everyone,” said Ford Executive Chairman Bill Ford. “I am proud he was able to bring the freedom of mobility to millions by making cars affordable to families and that his vision of serving people still drives everything we do today.”

Also in 2017, virtually all Ford vehicles will be built off nine core platforms, boosting manufacturing efficiency, while giving customers the features, fuel efficiency and technology they want anywhere in the world. Today, Ford builds vehicles on 15 platforms and has the freshest lineup in the industry.

“Henry Ford’s core principles of quality parts, workflow, division of labor and efficiency still resonate today,” said John Fleming, Ford executive vice president of global manufacturing. “Building on that tradition, we’re accelerating our efforts to standardize production, make factories more flexible and introduce advanced technologies to efficiently build the best vehicles possible at the best value for our customers no matter where they live.”

Ford’s recent expansions in global manufacturing and production have helped to retain 130,000 hourly and salaried jobs around the world.

They also put the company on pace to produce 6 million vehicles in 2013 – approximately 16 vehicles every 60 seconds around the world. By 2015, Ford will have opened the facilities below:

2011: Ford Sollers Elabuga Assembly Plant – Russia

2012: Ford Sollers Naberezhnye Chelny Assembly Plant – Russia

2012: Chongqing #2 Assembly Plant – China

2012: Craiova Engine Plant – Romania

2012: Ford Thailand Motors – Thailand

2013: Chongqing Engine Plant – China

2013: Nanchang Assembly – China

2014: Camaçari Engine Plant – Brazil

2014: Chongqing #3 Assembly Plant – China

2014: Chongqing Transmission – China

2014: Sanand Assembly Plant – India

2014: Sanand Engine Plant – India

2015: Hangzhou Assembly – China

2015: Ford Sollers Elabuga Engine Plant – Russia

Innovation that Changed the World

One hundred years ago today, Henry Ford and his team at Highland Park assembly plant launched the world’s greatest contribution to manufacturing – the first moving assembly line. It simplified assembly of the Ford Model T’s 3,000 parts by breaking it into 84 distinct steps performed by groups of workers as a rope pulled the vehicle chassis down the line.

The new process revolutionized production and dropped the assembly time for a single vehicle from 12 hours to about 90 minutes.

By reducing the money, time and manpower needed to build cars as he refined the assembly line over the years, Ford was able to drop the price of the Model T from $850 to less than $300. For the first time in history, quality vehicles were affordable to the masses. Eventually, Ford built a Model T every 24 seconds and sold more than 15 million worldwide by 1927, accounting for half of all automobiles then sold.

“Ford’s new approach spread rapidly, not only to other automakers but also to manufacturers of phonographs, vacuum cleaners, refrigerators and other consumer goods,” said Bob Casey, former curator of transportation at The Henry Ford, and author of The Model T: A Centennial History. “The assembly line became the characteristic American mode of production.”

In 1914, Ford instituted the “$5 workday,” a significant wage at the time, to enable his employees to buy the vehicles they built. The move created loyalty among Ford workers and is credited with giving rise to a new middle class of consumers unencumbered by geography, free to travel the open roads, to live where they please and chase the American dream.

Ford fans today are honoring Henry Ford and his ingenious moving assembly line. National Geographic Channel will mark the occasion with an in-depth new documentary as part of its “Ultimate Factories” program airing Friday, Oct. 18. Information about the documentary and local air times can be found here .

New Technologies Shape the Future

Ford already is realizing the benefits of advanced manufacturing technologies that will shape the future. For example, Ford engineers are developing a highly flexible, first-of-its-kind, patented technology to rapidly form sheet-metal parts for low-volume production use. The technology, known as Ford Freeform Fabrication Technology, or F3T. will lower costs and speed delivery times for prototype stamping molds – within three business days versus two to six months for prototypes made using conventional methods.

Additionally, Ford is expanding its capabilities in 3D printing. which creates production-representative 3D parts layer by layer for testable prototypes. With 3D printing, Ford can create multiple versions of one part at a time and deliver prototype parts to engineers for testing in days rather than months.

Ford also is investing in robotic innovations to improve vehicle quality and production efficiencies. For example, the company’s new dirt detection system uses robotic vision to create a digital model of each vehicle in final assembly to analyze paint and surface imperfections in comparison with a perfect model. The result has been significantly improved surface quality on Ford vehicles and more time for operators on the assembly line to address complex issues. Robotics, in this case, allow Ford to work smarter in improving products for customers and allowing workers to focus on more critical thinking tasks.

Finally, through Ford’s “virtual factory ,” the company can improve quality and cut costs in real-world manufacturing facilities by creating and analyzing computer simulations of the complete vehicle production process. This includes simulations of how assembly line workers have to reach and stretch when building a vehicle to ensure the work conditions meet Ford ergonomic standards. Since the implementation of this virtual process in 2001, the number of ergonomic issues during physical builds has been reduced by nearly 20 percent.

“Technologies such as 3D printing, robotics and virtual manufacturing may live in research but have real-world applications for tomorrow and beyond,” said Paul Mascarenas, chief technical officer and vice president, Ford Research and Innovation. “We use Henry Ford’s spirit of innovation as a benchmark for bringing new technologies into the manufacturing process.”


The Failure of a Company, not a Business Model #home #loan #payment #calculator


#www.mortgage.com

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Mortgage.com: The Failure of a Company, not a Business Model

Event

On 31 October 2000, Mortgage.com, a publicly traded company supplying Internet-based loan processing and technology to financial institutions (e.g. GE Capital Mortgage Services and TD Waterhouse), announced that it is ceasing operations. The company announced that it would lay off 516 of its 618 employees and sell off assets, including loans currently being processed, the www.mortgage.com Web address and its loan processing software application.

Analysis

The failure of Mortgage.com does not indicate that Internet-based lending has failed as a business or that other Internet lenders (e.g. LendingTree and E-Loan) face a similar exposure. In fact, this event simply marks the demise of a single startup that did not have the resources to execute and survive in a highly competitive market. This development is consistent with Gartner CEO Michael Fleischer’s recent prediction that 95 percent to 98 percent of all pure-play dot-coms will fail by year- end 2002. These companies will fail because they do not have good business plans and enough resources, or because an emerging market is consolidating.

However, none of these individual failures will mean that online lending is in decline or that it will not survive as a viable business. Gartner research shows that consumer demand for online lending services — driven by such factors as the desire for quick information and approvals — remains strong. In the twelve-month period ending March 2000, for example, 6.7 percent of adult Internet users had shopped for a mortgage online — and 1.1 percent had obtained one. Even more promising, more than 10.1 percent of adult Internet users reported that they would likely use the Internet to shop or apply the next time they needed a loan.

The demise of players such as Mortgage.com indicates that, although the weak will not survive, the survivors will get stronger. The amount of online lending is not declining — only the number of players dividing up that business.

Analytical Source: George Barto, Financial Services Delivery Systems

2000 Gartner, Inc. and/or its Affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Reproduction and distribution of this publication in any form without prior written permission is forbidden. The information contained herein has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable. Gartner disclaims all warranties as to the accuracy, completeness or adequacy of such information. Although Gartners research may discuss legal issues related to the information technology business, Gartner does not provide legal advice or services and its research should not be construed or used as such. Gartner shall have no liability for errors, omissions or inadequacies in the information contained herein or for interpretations thereof. The opinions expressed herein are subject to change without notice.

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The Failure of a Company, not a Business Model #calculate #my #mortgage


#www.mortgage.com

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Mortgage.com: The Failure of a Company, not a Business Model

Event

On 31 October 2000, Mortgage.com, a publicly traded company supplying Internet-based loan processing and technology to financial institutions (e.g. GE Capital Mortgage Services and TD Waterhouse), announced that it is ceasing operations. The company announced that it would lay off 516 of its 618 employees and sell off assets, including loans currently being processed, the www.mortgage.com Web address and its loan processing software application.

Analysis

The failure of Mortgage.com does not indicate that Internet-based lending has failed as a business or that other Internet lenders (e.g. LendingTree and E-Loan) face a similar exposure. In fact, this event simply marks the demise of a single startup that did not have the resources to execute and survive in a highly competitive market. This development is consistent with Gartner CEO Michael Fleischer’s recent prediction that 95 percent to 98 percent of all pure-play dot-coms will fail by year- end 2002. These companies will fail because they do not have good business plans and enough resources, or because an emerging market is consolidating.

However, none of these individual failures will mean that online lending is in decline or that it will not survive as a viable business. Gartner research shows that consumer demand for online lending services — driven by such factors as the desire for quick information and approvals — remains strong. In the twelve-month period ending March 2000, for example, 6.7 percent of adult Internet users had shopped for a mortgage online — and 1.1 percent had obtained one. Even more promising, more than 10.1 percent of adult Internet users reported that they would likely use the Internet to shop or apply the next time they needed a loan.

The demise of players such as Mortgage.com indicates that, although the weak will not survive, the survivors will get stronger. The amount of online lending is not declining — only the number of players dividing up that business.

Analytical Source: George Barto, Financial Services Delivery Systems

2000 Gartner, Inc. and/or its Affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Reproduction and distribution of this publication in any form without prior written permission is forbidden. The information contained herein has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable. Gartner disclaims all warranties as to the accuracy, completeness or adequacy of such information. Although Gartners research may discuss legal issues related to the information technology business, Gartner does not provide legal advice or services and its research should not be construed or used as such. Gartner shall have no liability for errors, omissions or inadequacies in the information contained herein or for interpretations thereof. The opinions expressed herein are subject to change without notice.

Become a Client

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The Failure of a Company, not a Business Model #mortgage #loan #calculator #with #taxes #and


#www.mortgage.com

#

Mortgage.com: The Failure of a Company, not a Business Model

Event

On 31 October 2000, Mortgage.com, a publicly traded company supplying Internet-based loan processing and technology to financial institutions (e.g. GE Capital Mortgage Services and TD Waterhouse), announced that it is ceasing operations. The company announced that it would lay off 516 of its 618 employees and sell off assets, including loans currently being processed, the www.mortgage.com Web address and its loan processing software application.

Analysis

The failure of Mortgage.com does not indicate that Internet-based lending has failed as a business or that other Internet lenders (e.g. LendingTree and E-Loan) face a similar exposure. In fact, this event simply marks the demise of a single startup that did not have the resources to execute and survive in a highly competitive market. This development is consistent with Gartner CEO Michael Fleischer’s recent prediction that 95 percent to 98 percent of all pure-play dot-coms will fail by year- end 2002. These companies will fail because they do not have good business plans and enough resources, or because an emerging market is consolidating.

However, none of these individual failures will mean that online lending is in decline or that it will not survive as a viable business. Gartner research shows that consumer demand for online lending services — driven by such factors as the desire for quick information and approvals — remains strong. In the twelve-month period ending March 2000, for example, 6.7 percent of adult Internet users had shopped for a mortgage online — and 1.1 percent had obtained one. Even more promising, more than 10.1 percent of adult Internet users reported that they would likely use the Internet to shop or apply the next time they needed a loan.

The demise of players such as Mortgage.com indicates that, although the weak will not survive, the survivors will get stronger. The amount of online lending is not declining — only the number of players dividing up that business.

Analytical Source: George Barto, Financial Services Delivery Systems

2000 Gartner, Inc. and/or its Affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Reproduction and distribution of this publication in any form without prior written permission is forbidden. The information contained herein has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable. Gartner disclaims all warranties as to the accuracy, completeness or adequacy of such information. Although Gartners research may discuss legal issues related to the information technology business, Gartner does not provide legal advice or services and its research should not be construed or used as such. Gartner shall have no liability for errors, omissions or inadequacies in the information contained herein or for interpretations thereof. The opinions expressed herein are subject to change without notice.

Become a Client

Become a Client

Use our freephone to call us
Mon-Fri 8 a.m. to 5 p.m

Become a Client